Detailing On Stellar Consensus Protocol

Consensus is present in all aspects of life, amongst the human race, and, of course, the digital space cannot deny its dependence. There needs a defined set of instructions met, to approve and agree on something. Exploring blockchain networks also vest on Consensus protocol, which over the years brought in many different and specified stigma that makes the process more straightforward and speedy. Among that Stellar consensus protocol working is slightly up and. Here let us focus in detail on these consensus and more about the working structure of Stellar Consensus Protocol.

What Is Consensus Protocol And Its Types?

The consensus protocol in Blockchain consists of a set of agreements for the system to agree upon to process and validate the transaction. It consists of agreements, collaborations, rights, co-operations, and many others to approve upon. Moreover, it brings in overall system reliability in the network connecting different nodes and users. With excellent multiple architectures, the consensus protocol makes the network highly scalable and available.

Listed below are different consequences that are amplified in the blockchain network.

Proof of Work

The main motive of Proof of work would be to be able the odes to perform different mathematical components and meters, by guessing as many possibilities in a shorter span. The miners and validators in the network, have to prove that their transaction made satisfies the requirements and duly meets the demand to fit in the nodes. By solving complicated mathematics, the transaction finds a space in the cryptographic hash of the block.

Proof Of Stake

This is an alternative for proof of work. Involves intricate hardware, software, and no complicated math to process mining. The validators here get rewards and increase their stake. Reducing energy consumption. Here the number of mining tokens matters, the more they stake the more control is driven over the consensus.

Stellar Consensus Protocol

This consensus module provides a way to look at different possibilities without relying on the closed system protocol to precisely record financial transactions The SCP module initiates speedy transactions, at a comparatively lower cost. It simplifies everyone on the network to reach an agreement on the validity of the traction in a shorter span.

Byzantine Agreement System

It brings in a set of Parties within the environment to agree on a particular value when in case of few. Moreover, a number of solutions arrived through the Byzantine agreement protocol. When a certain minimum number of nodes are reached, the agreement is approved and the solution is correct, therefore the block is validated and approved in the inclusion of the blockchain.

Mechanisms Decentralization Less Latency Flexibility Asymptotic security
Proof of stake Yes Maybe Maybe
Stellar consensus Yes Yes Yes Yes
Byzantine Agreement Yes Yes Yes
Tendermint Yes Yes Yes

Explaining Stellar Consensus Protocol

As the consensus is important to a decentralized payment system. The distribution, monitoring, and approval of transactions among individual nodes can rely on a central system. Consensus is important for ensuring security, permitting the nodes to accept safe algorithms, and it prevents double-spending attacks.

The SCP was a construction federated on Byzantine Agreement (FBA). It is slightly different as it relies on the agreement of the trusted nodes, while others rely on nodes on staking power and computational abilities. Each participant in SCP is called a validator who defines what set of other nodes that has to be trusted. The user-defined trust flexes open network membership and decentralized control. The validator is not benefited by any monitory regard instead, they are encouraged to be validators to contribute to the security of the network, and the resiliency of the network.


The Four Principles Of Stellar Consensus Protocol

Decentralization - there is no restriction in participation and the authority is also never centralized in terms of approval over consensus.

Less Latency - the nodes reach the point of consensus on time, except in the case of web or payment transactions. But they are also managed in seconds.

Flexibility - the users are free to act and trust the combination of parties, where even smaller nonprofits may play a vital role in keeping up with large institutions.

Asymptotic security - digital signatures and hash families have safety bound with parameters. That can be tuned to protect adversaries with unimaginably vast computing power.

The Major Components Of Stellar Consensus Protocol

Quorum set

Each core node decides on which node it trusts to reach out to for agreements. A trusted node set is called a Quorum set.

Example: B is a node and A, C, and D are core nodes agreed to trust, Quorum set.


In addition to the Quorum set, the core node chooses a threshold. There is a minimum count of the node in a set to reach a consensus.

Example: When the threshold is 2, the quorum set validates when the sets are in combination with 2s. Say (A, D) or (A, C) or (C, D)

Quorum Slices

The combination of nodes agreeing within a quorum set is called Quorum Slices.

Example: the nodes A, and C are combined to validate, they are the slices.

Blocking Sets

The nodes have the power to block and protest from reaching consensus. The node blocking set prevents nodes in the Quorum set from reaching agreements.

Example: when 3 on 4 nodes are required for a quorum set to agree, a combination of 2 sets is node blocking sets.


This is a set of sufficient nodes to reach an agreement. These nodes are part of Quorum slices.

Example: the nodes A and C are quorums of an agreement when the validation requires 2 combination sets.


For the stellar to express validation or valid statement, the opinion of nodes regarding the transaction has to agree in the ledger.

Example: in the case of proposing the transaction to be set for ledger number 800, it is approved based on its opinion on the quorum set.

Agreement system

Fault tolerance is foremost here. The byzantine agreement statement is well supported here as it is consistent enough to provide results over errors.

What Is Federated Voting In The Working Of Stellar Consensus Protocol?


Stellar Consensus Protocol = Vote -> Accept -> Confirm

The Stellar consensus protocol agreement is achieved through federated voting. The node helps in curling out the reasons earned from the quorum set before 100% agreeing to the honest network. The process basically goes through three straight steps in terms of federated voting:

1. Voting

2. Accepting

3. Confirming

Let us consider the node ‘CAT’ to have four opinions.

1. I know nothing about CAT and there is no opinion.

2. I vote for CAT and it is valid. But unsure if it's safe.

3. I support CAT as enough nodes stand by it.

4. CAT is confirmed and safe. Despite all other nodes in the quorum set not being confirmed, only CAT is confirmed and not others.

Here federated voting takes place to simplify the complexities.

Vote for CAT, if it has m previous votes.

Accept CAT, if either

i. Every node in the quorum slice vote for CAT


ii. When my block set accept CAT

iii. Excluding the cases when the node has contradicted the result in the previous time.

Confirm CAT when every node accepts CATi in the Quorum slice.

The Consensus round is separated into two stages.

Nomination Protocol

Under this protocol the transaction set is selected to get entered into the ledger. Once the first candidate confirms, it stops voting and nominates other transaction sets. Yet it can still accept and confirm previous statements it has nominated. When every other node stops bringing new values and continues to confirm other nodes, everything ends up in the same list. The ballot protocol starts soon after it is confirmed. The first candidate confirms, to start the next step while this runs in the background.

Ballot Protocol

The ballot protocol unanimously confirms and applies nominated sets of transactions. First, Prepare. It verifies the quorum slices of nodes to have the right value and its acceptance to give commitment. The next set is a commitment as it here ensures the commitment of the Node’s quorum slices for the values.

Get Validated With Stellar Consensus Protocol

The Stellar Consensus Protocol is intended to make profound changes in the structure of financial transactions in the globally evolving era of web3. The stellar consensus protocol is one fine solution to buckle up for easy, speedy, and quick transactions and validation in the blockchain network. To get yourself aided with SCP, a blockchain development company can help you. Get your validity more strong and more secure with the outstanding abilities of Stellar consensus protocol working amazingly precise.

About Author

Yokesh Sankar

I am Yokesh Sankar. Co-Founder of BlockchainX, My vision and time to offer the best products for our clients without apprehensions at economic rates. Read more

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